FAQ

WHY IS INDOOR AIR QUALITY SUCH A HOT TOPIC?

Indoor Air Quality has become the pollution-related health issue of the 90's. In recent years, the EPA has ranked poor Indoor Air Quality among the top five health risks caused by pollution.
Pollutants enter our bodies by ingestion (eating or drinking), by absorption through our skin, or by inhalation (breathing). Of course, of the three, only breathing is something we do continually. Studies indicate that we spend 90% of our time in an indoor environment, so, the quality of the indoor air we breathe is very critical to our health and well-being. Employers are finding that providing good indoor air quality promotes increased productivity and reduced lost time due to illness.


LEGISLATION .... WHAT THE GOVERNMENT HAS TO SAY


As the public becomes more aware of the health effects of poor indoor air quality, the demand for government regulation will increase. OSHA has proposed regulations aimed at promoting good indoor air quality for the workplace already. Municipalities around the U.S. have begun enacting ordinances requiring building owners and operators to control tobacco smoke in their restaurants, bars, and places where many people are in close proximity to one another.


LITIGATION AND ECONOMICS .... The Dollars and Sense


Until more definitive legislation regarding IAQ is enacted, the primary incentive to provide good quality indoor air is the possibility of litigation. The number of personal injury liability lawsuits due to poor quality indoor air is increasing. Settlements and awards have reached the $500,000 mark per plaintiff. Just the potential of this kind of litigation should be incentive for potential defendants to assure good IAQ in all buildings for which they are responsible.
Another benefit of providing clean indoor air is that the building interior and furnishings will be cleaner requiring less housekeeping and maintenance. In addition, a clean HVAC system operates more efficiently and requires less maintenance, reducing operational costs. All in all, providing good IAQ will improve the bottom line.

THE IAQ CULPRITS ... WHAT TO LOOK FOR PARTICULATES

Generally, airborne contaminants which affect the quality of the air can be divided into two groups:


  1. Particles: Pollen, Mold, and Dust
  2. Chemical Vapors, Gases and Odor
    PARTICLES are matter that has a measurable size or diameter which is usually measured in microns: (1 micron=1 millionth of a meter or 1/25,000th inch). Most people cannot see particles smaller than I 00 microns. The human body has defenses which can protect against particles larger that 10 microns. Particles smaller than 10 microns can enter breathing passages and the lungs. Types of particles include:


  • Dust: Organic and Mineral
  • Textile Lint and Fibers
  • Bioaerosols: Pollen, Mold, Bacteria, Dust Mite and Roach fecal matter and body parts, Animal Dander and Dried Urine. Smoke: Tobacco, Welding
    ODORS, GASES, AND CHEMICAL VAPORS
    Odors, gases and chemical vapors are molecular compounds. Gases usually exist always as gases. Vapors are released by evaporation or off-gassing from liquids or solids containing those compounds. Some gases or vapors have odors associated with them, some do not. Some unpleasant odors are not particularly dangerous while some dangerous vapors or gases have little or no odor. Types of gases and vapors include:

- Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's)-released by solvents, petroleum-based products, synthetic materials, and mold. Tobacco Smoke-includes VOC's and combustion by-products.
- Reactive Gases-acid vapors, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde (emitted by pressed wood products and treated fabrics).
- Ammonia-related to urine odors as found in day care nurseries and nursing homes.
- Combustion by-products-carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen are the contaminants of concern.

  • (Note: Effective filtration methods for these contaminants are specialized and not usually found in air filtration systems used in typical residential, office, and light industrial applications).
    HOW TO CONTROL AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS
    THE FOUR BASICS OF IAQ CONTROL:
  • 1. Eliminate the source, or substitute a material which emits less contamination. EXAMPLE: Prohibiting smoking in a building. Substitute a water-based adhesive for a solvent (VOC-based) adhesive. PROBLEM: A bar or bingo hall that prohibits smoking will lose customers.
  • 2. Isolate the source of contaminants. EXAMPLE: A designated room for smoking. A sealer applied on particle board to prevent formaldehyde off-gassing. PROBLEM: Smokers in a bingo hall may not want to be separated from their friends.
  • 3. Ventilate the building with outside air to dilute contaminants in the building and to exhaust them out of the building. PROBLEM: Outside air may be contaminated with vehicle exhaust or other contaminants. During hot or cold weather, this outside air will have to be cooled or heated resulting in increased utility costs. The ventilation requirement for a large number of smokers can be quite high. The increased heating and/or cooling costs can also be substantial. Often, the existing HVAC equipment cannot handle the increased thermal loads, so additional or larger equipment must be installed at additional costs.
  • 4. Filter the air in the building using filters appropriate for the contaminants present. Filters cannot remove all contaminants, so some outside air may be needed. The outside air should also be filtered. PROBLEM: While the HVAC system is the most logical place to install filters, the fans may not be able to overcome the resistance created by the filters. Stand-alone air cleaners are designed to work with special filters. They can be located at the contaminants source. Usually they can be operated continuously at a tower cost than the HVAC system.

FILTER SELECTION


ASHRAE standard 52.1-1992 is used to measure the performance of most filters used in HVAC systems and air cleaning systems. Besides measuring air flow resistance, two filtration performance measurements can be made depending on the type of filter. The dust weight arrestance test indicates how well a filter captures larger, heavier particles (greater than 10 microns). It is used to evaluate panel filters used in HVAC systems and as pre-filters in air cleaners. These filters usually are not very effective on fine dusts and smokes (less than 8-10 microns). The dust spot efficiency test indicates how well a filter captures small particulates (.3-6 microns) such as fine dusts and smokes. It is usually used to evaluate pleated filters, bag filters and electronic filters. Military standard 282 (not an ASHRAE standard) measures the percentage removal of 0.3 micron particles of D.O.P. smoke. These are very high efficiency filters. A high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) is 99.97% efficient using this test. By comparison, a 95% dust spot filter is about 65% D.O.P.
Pre-filters are used in air cleaners to filter lint, dust, and other large particles. Usually a flat panel or a 1-2 inch pleat is used. Minimal performance should be at 80-90% arrestance. Better Pre-filters are at least 30% dust spot efficient. Frequent changing of disposables or cleaning of reusable filters prolongs the life of the main filter.
The Main Filter removes fine particulates. The minimum efficiency should be 60% dust spot. If tobacco smoke is a concern, the minimum efficiency should be 95% dust spot. Special air cleaning requirements may call for a 95% D.O.P. or 99.97% D.O.P. HEPA filter.
Final Filters are used when a high level of air cleanliness is required. Often a 950/%-99.97% D.O.P. filter is used after a 60%95% dust spot filter. This configuration protects the more costly final filter
Adsorbent Filters are used to remove odors, chemical vapors, and gases. No mechanical or electronic filter can remove these contaminants. The adsorbent material most often used is activated carbon or charcoal. It is capable of removing over 200 different odors, vapors, or gases. Carbon is primarily used to filter organic odors, solvents, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), and tobacco smoke. Carbon filters are available in three types:


  1. Polyester pad (1/4"-3/8" thick) with carbon powder bonded to the fibers. For light to medium duty filtration. May also be used as a pre-filter.
  2. Carbon Web (1 "-2" thick) has carbon granules suspended in a non-woven fiber matrix. Good for medium duty requirements and where high air flows are needed.
  3. Granular carbon panels and cells are available in 1 " and 2" depths. They are used for relatively high contamination levels or when longer filter life is desired. However, these filters are restrictive to air flow.
    Potassium Permanganate is used for gases and vapors like formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. It is impregnated in small alumina spheres. The contaminant is adsorbed onto the sphere and chemically reacts with the potassium permanganate. New, unexposed spheres are purple. As the reactions take place, they turn gray or brown. When all of the spheres have changed color, they are no longer active and cannot remove the contaminant.
    Zeolite is a natural mineral which adsorbs ammonia and related odors.

Type 5 is a proprietary material which adsorbs and chemically reacts with acid vapors, chlorine, flourine, bromine, and iodine. Color changes from yellow to white.

SELECTING SYSTEM OUTPUT


ACH's(Air Changes Per Hour)

The rate at which air in a room is cleaned (called air changes per hour, or ACH), is critical to an air cleaning system installation. If the air cleaner is too small or if there are not enough air cleaners, the air may not be cleaned to an acceptable level. The following procedure will help determine the air flow needed in cubic feet per minute, or CFM. Once the CFM required is determined, the size or quantity of air cleaners can be determined.

First, select a contaminant level and required air exchange rate, for example:
CONTAMINANT'S vs. REQUIRED AIR EXCHANGE RATE


  • Nuisance dust lint - 15 minutes (4 ACH)
  • Light odor, chemical - 10 minutes (6 ACH)
  • Moderate odor, chemical, tobacco smoke - 8 minutes (8 ACH)
  • Heavy odor, chemical, tobacco smoke - 6 minutes (10 ACH)

Next, determine room volume:


  • Volume = length x width x height

Determine CFM required to clean the room:


  • CFMREQ = Volume/Air Exchange Rate
    Select an air cleaner with an output equal to or greater than CFM required. If the CFM required is much greater than available system output, multiple units may be required. To determine the number of air cleaners required:

    Number of Systems = CFMREQ / CFM per system
    NOTE: System CFM will be affected by the filter configuration used. Make sure you select the appropriate filters for the contaminants you wish to control. On ducted systems, CFM can be affected by friction loss caused by duct and grilles. However, most, ducted layouts will not cause a significant loss of CFM.

AIR CLEANING SYSTEM PLACEMENT - AIR PATTERN MANAGEMENT


Effective air cleaning requires air pattern management: using the clean filtered air coming from the system supply grill(s) to push the contaminants to the system return grill(s) where the dirty air is drawn into the air cleaner to be filtered. Proper location of the air cleaner is important to achieving good air pattern management. It is necessary to know the HVAC airflow patterns in the room. The air cleaning system air flow must not be against the HVAC system air flow; it should go with it.

PRESSURE RELATIONSHIPS


Another technique for controlling airborne contaminants involves slightly pressurizing or depressurizing a room.

EXAMPLE 1: An inspection room in a dusty factory must be kept clean. Dust cannot come into the room when the door is opened to enter or leave. SOLUTION: An air cleaning system can be installed so that most of the air it draws in comes from outside of the inspection room. All of the filtered air is supplied to the room. Since more air is introduced into the room than is drawn out, it will be under positive pressure relative to the factory. Clean air will leak out (exflltration) rather than dirty air leak into the room (infiltration). When the door is opened, air will move out of the room, keeping dust out.

EXAMPLE 2: A small room contains a label printing machine. Chemical vapors, odor, and fine ink droplets drift through an open doorway into the next room. A door cannot be installed because of the HVAC air flow. SOLUTION: An air cleaning system can be installed so that the return (where filtered air is drawn into the system) is in the printer room. The system supply (where filtered air comes out) is located in the adjacent room near the doorway. since air is drawn out of the printer room through the air cleaner return and there is no supply, the printer room will be under negative pressure relative to the adjacent room. Air movement at the doorway will be into the room, so contaminants released by the printing process cannot drift into the adjacent room.

What is an allergy?

Understanding Allergies

This material is provided by your allergist to help you understand the role substances in your environment play in the occurrence of symptoms. This information will make it possible for you to reduce your exposure to these items so your body can become stronger. Many patients have enjoyed feeling better after making a few changes in their indoor environments. An allergy is an over reaction to substances which are ordinarily- harmless to other individuals. It can be described as a hypersensitivity reaction to a sensitizing substance called an allergen which is recognized as foreign by the body. Allergy reactions are often due to excessive amounts of a natural antibody, antibody E. Allergic individuals produce too much antibody E and as a result may experience symptoms of allergy.

What are the common allergens?

House dust, pollen, mold, animal dander, dust mites, cockroaches, and foods are common allergens. Medicines and chemicals can also cause allergic symptoms.

What is meant by the Total Allergy Load?

You Total Allergy Load is the sum total of the factors which contribute to the production of allergic symptoms.

Example: The Bucket Theory


  • Walls of the bucket = Your immune system's capacity
  • Water level in the bucket = Summation of your load
  • Water overflow = Symptoms
  • Mat under the bucket = Medications (Stress = Lowers walls of the bucket and increases water level)
  • Immunotherapy Raises the walls of the bucket
  • •Avoidance therapy = Allows less water into the bucket
    Avoidance should include not only the identified allergens, but also factors which may contribute to increasing your total load, i.e. environmental , physical, and emotional stresses.

Your allergy load can be increased by exposure to several allergens in small amounts, or a combination of allergens to which you are mildly allergic and some to which you react severely.

What are some things that will decrease my allergy load?


  1. Isolate the allergen or allergen producing item. For example, mattress encasings can keep you from coming in contact with dust mites, mold, and house dust.
  2. Remove the allergen or allergen producing items from your home and particularly your bedroom. Any of the common allergens or other items that bring on your symptoms should be taken from your breathing space.
  3. Ventilate to remove allergens or pollutants. This can be helpful to dilute tobacco smoke, odors, and chemical fumes. These should be avoided by the sensitive person.
  4. Filter allergens from the air. High performance filters in the central air system can remove dust, pollen, and mold which all contribute to total allergy load. Room Air Purifiers can provide a continuous supply of clean, allergen-free air for working and sleeping.
  5. Recognize the need to make your bedroom as allergen-free as possible. Breathing clean air all night gives your immune system an opportunity to recuperate from daytime exposures.
  6. Consult with your doctor about improving your nutrition.
  7. Lower your stress level. Stress lowers your resistance to allergen exposures.
  8. Get more rest.

Where to begin with your allergen avoidance program:

  1. Survey your home for any visible mold growth or any area with a musty smell. Remove the mold with a non-toxic cleaner such as Safety Clean, and treat the surface with a mold retardant such as X-158.
  2. Install a high performance, washable electrostatic air filter in your central air system.
  3. Cover your mattress and pillows with zippered, impermeable encasings.
  4. Remove pets from the home or at least from your bedroom.
  5. If you cannot remove carpet from your bedroom, treat with X-Mite, a tannic acid product.
  6. Keep your bedroom as dust free as possible.
  7. Use a portable room air purifier in your bedroom or where you spend the most time.

How To Create An Allergen-Free Bedroom

All day long you are exposed to various contaminants in the environment. This exposure can be a stress to your immune system. Too much stress and exposure can result in symptoms and fatigue.

When you go to sleep at night, you need an allergen-free environment in order for your immune system to repair itself However, if your bedroom is full of allergens and pollutants, instead of recovering, you may feel worse upon arising than when you went to bed.
Most of us spend about 33% of our time (8 hours) in our bedrooms which often have the highest allergen content of any indoor area. It makes sense to remove as many allergens and pollutants as possible from your bedroom, so you can wake up feeling better than when you went to bed.

What allergens are found in the bedroom?


  1. Dust and dust mites - mattresses, pillows, quilts, comforters, upholstered furniture, carpets, drapes, muffles, stuffed toys, books, cardboard storage boxes, clothing.
  2. Mold - leather shoes, purses, damp carpets, bedding, heavy drapes, moisture on walls and window sills, adjoining bathrooms, house plants, leftover food, pets (urine), pet sleeping areas, worn clothing, damp towels.
  3. Pollen - carried on clothing and pet's fur, infiltration from windows, doors, and the central air system.
  4. Animal dander - carried on clothing, pets, infiltration through central air system.
  5. Cockroach - cast skins of insects.

Now that you know where allergens occur, you are probably wondering how you can avoid coming in contact with all of them. You may be getting some ideas about why you feel the way you do in certain rooms or when you do specific activities. Since we all spend quite a number of hours in the bedroom, let's consider what to do for ourselves in that room.

There are four basic procedures for reducing your allergen exposure.

  1. Isolate the allergen or allergen producing item.
  2. Remove the allergen or allergen producing item.
  3. Ventilate to remove allergens.
  4. Filter allergens from the air.

What you can do to reduce your allergen exposure.

  1. Remove as many allergen producing items as possible. List what can be removed from your bedroom that either produces or harbors allergens.
  2. Keep pets out of the room and preferably out of the house. Animal dander is very light weight and remains airborne for hours. It also sticks to clothing and personal belongings and is thus transported to areas where animals do not live.
  3. Damp mop all hard surfaces to remove dust. There are new electrostatically charged cleaning cloths which trap and hold the dirt as you clean. Wear a mask while cleaning to minimize exposure.
  4. Tape around windows to keep pollen from infiltrating.
  5. Remove any visible mold from surfaces with Safety Clean. Once the mold is removed, spray the surface with X-158 or other nontoxic mold retardant.
  6. Use allergen bedding. These zippered, allergen impenetrable covers on mattresses, box springs, and pillows to reduce your exposure.
  7. Use a room air purifier to remove airborne allergens such as dust, pollen, mold, and animal dander.
  8. Wash in hot water to kill dust mites or use D-Mite Dust Mite Laundry treatment.
  9. Vacuum twice weekly with a vacuum equipped with a high-efficiency air filter.
  10. Keep only the necessities in your bedroom. Eliminate as many of the items listed above as possible.
  11. Keep furnishing simple and only those that are easy to clean.

What You Should Know About Indoor Air Pollution


  • All homeowners are interested in energy conservation today. Reducing ventilation and sealing living spaces more tightly are ways to conserve energy - but they are also trap irritants
  • Particulate contamination, like dust and pollen, can make you sneeze, cough, irritate your eyes - you know the feeling. Disposable fiberglass filters are certainly inexpensive; but if clean air is important to you, disposable filters aren't really acceptable, because they only remove large particles and not the tiny particles of dust, pollen, and smoke.
  • Did you know that the smoke and odor in the air are caused by particles and gases and when removed the air smells cleaner and fresher and so do your carpets, drapes, wall coverings and furniture.
  • Indoor air pollution has largely been ignored for years but is now being recognized as a serious problem in homes as well as commercial buildings. For one thing, more pollution is trapped indoors. Normal activities like cooking, heating and cleaning, release gases and particles, some of which are definitely unhealthy. Personal practices like smoking, add to the problem. These gases seem to linger in our "energy-tight" homes, sealed in as effectively as outdoor air is sealed out. One probable cause for this situation being ignored is a general lack of consumer awareness about the seriousness of indoor air pollution.
  • Reasonable estimates are that the visible particles that scatter a sunbeam's light amount to 1 percent of all the particles in the air. That leaves another 99% too small to be seen with the naked or untrained eye. Only the effects of these invisible particles may be seen in human discomfort and in soiling film that slowly coats walls, furnishings and drapes. Dust, pollen, tobacco smoke, cooking smoke, animal dander, bacteria, viruses, skin flakes and carpet fibers are just some of the troublesome particles floating in indoor air. These particles are suspended in the air until they attach themselves to walls, furniture, drapes, etc. Scrubbing, dry cleaning, painting and redecorating are required to undo the damage they cause.
  • Worse yet are the effects dirty indoor air has on people. Pollen, spores and dust make life miserable for those with allergies. Lingering tobacco smoke makes some people acutely uncomfortable. Bacteria and viruses promote disease and these particles are carried through the air with the aid of dust. Formaldehyde is another potentially harmful gas which is generated from furniture, building materials, and insulation and can be found in almost any home. While air pollution affects everyone there are studies that show our children are even more susceptible to the detrimental effects of air pollution particles than adults.
  • With all we have to offer our children today why not give them a cleaner healthier environment in which to develop? After all, it is their growth and development with which we must concern ourselves.

What You Should Know About Pollen

Where do pollen grains occur?
Trees, weeds, flowers, and grasses produce pollen grains which become airborne as the wind blows. Approximately a quarter of a million plants use the wind for transporting pollen grains. Insects such as bees play a role in the distribution of pollen from plant to plant.

Pollen from different plants occur at different times of the year in the various parts of the country. Your local TV or radio station may report the pollen count on a daily basis. It is important to know the times of pollination in your area so you can implement avoidance measures to reduce your symptoms.

Is exposure limited to the outdoors?

No, you can experience exposure to pollen inside your home. These allergens are carried indoors on our clothing, pets, and they infiltrate through doors and windows.

How can I reduce pollen exposure?


  • Be informed about the pollen timetable for your area.
  • During peak seasons, stay inside as much as possible.
  • Keep windows and doors closed.
  • Keep clothing worn outside out of your bedroom. Remember, pollen is easily transported on your clothes.
  • Seal windows with tape to stop infiltration from outside.
  • Use a high performance filter in your central air system.
  • Use a room air purifier in your bedroom, play area, or office.
  • Use a mask when walking, performing housekeeping tasks, grooming pets, or working outside.
  • Keep pets outside or bathe them frequently.
  • ADS can be sprayed on a carpets and upholstered furniture to denature pollen grains.

What You Should Know About House Dust

HEALTH OF A NATION


Indoor Air Quality has become the pollution-related health issue of the 90's. In recent years, the EPA has ranked poor Indoor Air Quality among the top five health risks caused by pollution.
Pollutants enter our bodies by ingestion (eating or drinking), by absorption through our skin, or by inhalation (breathing). Of course, of the three, only breathing is something we do continually. Studies indicate that we spend 90% of our time in an indoor environment, so, the quality of the indoor air we breathe is very critical to our health and well-being. Employers are finding that providing good indoor air quality promotes increased productivity and reduced lost time due to illness.

LEGISLATION .... WHAT THE GOVERNMENT HAS TO SAY


As the public becomes more aware of the health effects of poor indoor air quality, the demand for government regulation will increase. OSHA has proposed regulations aimed at promoting good indoor air quality for the workplace already. Municipalities around the U.S. have begun enacting ordinances requiring building owners and operators to control tobacco smoke in their restaurants, bars, and places where many people are in close proximity to one another.

LITIGATION AND ECONOMICS .... The Dollars and Sense


Until more definitive legislation regarding IAQ is enacted, the primary incentive to provide good quality indoor air is the possibility of litigation. The number of personal injury liability lawsuits due to poor quality indoor air is increasing. Settlements and awards have reached the $500,000 mark per plaintiff. Just the potential of this kind of litigation should be incentive for potential defendants to assure good IAQ in all buildings for which they are responsible.
Another benefit of providing clean indoor air is that the building interior and furnishings will be cleaner requiring less housekeeping and maintenance. In addition, a clean HVAC system operates more efficiently and requires less maintenance, reducing operational costs. All in all, providing good IAQ will improve the bottom line.

What You Should Know About Animal Dander

What is animal dander?

Animal dander is not the hair or fur of the animal, but is old skin scales which are constantly shed. Older animals produce more dander than young ones because their skin is drier. Animal dander is extremely light weight and tiny in size, (approx. 2.5 microns) and can stay airborne for hours. (1 micron = 1/25,000 in.)

Are skin flakes the only source of animal allergens?

No, the primary cat allergen, Felis domesticus allergen I, is a glycoprotein found in the sebaceous glands of the cat's hair roots and in their sublingual salivary glands. It is also present in the urine of male cats.

How does animal dander become airborne?

During grooming the allergen from the sebaceous glands is deposited with the saliva on the cat's fur. When it dries, it flakes off and is released into the air.
Why do I have symptoms even when I am not near the cat?
Cat dander sticks to our clothing and personal belongings and is easily transported wherever we go. This is why cat dander has been found in schools and offices where an animal has never lived. Its ability to remain airborne and to permeate every area of the house makes it extremely hard to control.

Can birds produce dander?


Yes, birds produce a feather dust which can cause allergic reactions. The larger the bird the more dander is produced.

What about rabbits and guinea pigs?


Any furred or feathered animal is a potential source of animal allergens. The saliva and urine contain the proteins that cause reactions.

What are ways to reduce my exposure to animal dander?



  • Remove the pet from the house and then clean ALL surfaces thoroughly with a damp cloth or mop.
  • Use a vacuum cleaner with a High Efficiency Air Filter to trap the tiny particles of animal allergen. The water vacuums are not effective on animal dander. Studies have show they actually increase dander levels when in use.
  • Bathe the animal weekly with Allerpet, a shampoo/ conditioner. Studies have shown this product can decrease the amount of dander in settled dust by nearly 50% It is available for cats, dogs, and birds.
  • If the pet can't be removed from the house, at least keep it out of your bedroom.
  • Use a room air purifier in your bedroom to remove airborne animal dander.
  • Wear a mask when grooming your pet.
  • Keep clothing worn when playing with the pet out of your bedroom.

What You Should Know About Mold

Mold, mildew, and fungi are all terms generally used to describe a group of diverse plants which appear as woolly or powdery growth. They have been recognized as an allergen for over 100 years. Mold infestation is mentioned in the Bible in Leviticus chapters 11-14.
Molds are everywhere, indoors and out, in every type of climate, and in every social and economic condition. They grow in places we would not expect. They are elusive and will be more prevalent at different times of the day or night depending on the type of mold. A single mold can germinate and produce hundreds of thousands of airborne spores in 4-9 days.

Surveys have shown that high mold and pollen counts frequently occur at the same time of year. Hay fever symptoms may be caused by mold rather than pollen.
Mold needs moisture, food, which can be any organic matter, and preferably warm temperatures. Relative humidity below 40% discourages mold growth.

Molds are found in soil and in decaying leaves, straw, grains, and wood. Any contact with these things can expose you to mold. Mowing the grass; raking leaves, working in the soil, working in a garage, barn, hay field, or grain storage areas, cleaning out pet litter and sleeping areas, or cleaning your closet can bring on symptoms associated with mold allergy.

Lifestyles That Increase Mold Counts
Poor housekeeping practices - dirty dishes and food left around the house, trash kept in the house in cans or compactors, dirty clothes lying around, and infrequent housecleaning-can all increase mold growth.

The use of ceiling fans in lieu of air conditioning can increase mold levels in homes. Higher thermostat settings mean the air conditioner operates less so humidity is not removed from the air.

Inefficient Filters
Inefficient filters allow dirt to accumulate on coils, the drain pan, and duct work. This dirt becomes "food" for mold. Washable, electrostatic filters which contain media treated with an anti-microbial inhibitor are preferred and have proven effective in reducing mold levels in homes.

Where Do Molds Grow?


  1. Kitty Litter
  2. Bird Cages
  3. Male Animals
  4. Heavily Draped Windows
  5. Roof or Plumbing Leaks/li>
  6. Unsealed Concrete Slabs
  7. Chimney Swift Droppings/Feathers
  8. Any Moist Carpet
  9. Poorly Ventilated Closets
  10. Air Conditioning Drain Pan
  11. A/C Duct Work and Vents
  12. Blocked A/C Drain Pans
  13. Vaporizers and Humidifiers
  14. House Plants
  15. Frost-free Refrigerator Drain Pans
  16. Laundry Room
  17. Hot Tubs and Jacuzzis
  18. Double-paned Windows
  19. Worn Clothing
  20. Leather Products
  21. Behind Base Boards and Walls
  22. Garbage-Disposals and Water Traps
  23. Soiled Trash Cans and Compactors
  24. Dirty Dishes
  25. Shrubs and Leaves Against the House
  26. Standing Water In or Under a House
  27. Upholstered Furniture
  28. Bathroom and Kitchene

How To Locate Mold



  1. A gravity mold test can be done in the rooms you suspect have high mold counts.
  2. Inspect walls, ceilings, carpets, windowsills, drain pan, ductwork, vents, bathrooms, and wall board for any darkened or discolored areas.

How To Reduce Mold Exposure



  1. Decrease moisture and the food source for mold on all surfaces.
  2. Use a high performance electrostatic air filter in the central air system.
  3. Remove items on which mold can grow from the bedroom.
  4. Use a room air purifier in the bedroom
  5. Drain and ventilate areas under and around the house.
  6. Clean and maintain central air system.
  7. Use air conditioning to reduce humidity.
  8. Use a dehumidifier to keep relative humidity below 40%.
  9. Frequently use a HEPA vacuum cleaner on carpets and furniture.
  10. Clean visible mold from surfaces using Safety Clean. Treat cleaned areas with X-158.
  11. Remove moldy carpet.
  12. Ventilate and put lights in closets.
  13. Keep shrubs and grass trimmed from around the foundation of the house.
  14. Wear a mask when doing any activity that could expose you to mold spores.

What You Should Know About Cockroaches

What part of the cockroach produces the allergen?
It is the cast skins of the cockroach which causes most of the allergic reactions.

Is there a relationship between cockroach allergy and asthma?
Yes. A study conducted in inner city Atlanta found a high proportion of children admitted to emergency rooms for asthma had high sensitivities to cockroach and dust mites.

How to reduce exposure to cockroach allergen?


  • Keep all foods in sealed containers.
  • Remove all food waste from the home or office.
  • Keep plumbing well maintained to reduce leaks and condensation on pipes which becomes a water source for roaches.
  • Increase ventilation in damp areas.
  • Seal roach entry areas around baseboards
  • Use Boric Acid or diatomaceous earth in kitchen cabinets, under appliances, and sinks.
  • **Special Allergy Filter Offer**


Allergy Gold


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Oour Price $79.00

  • 90% Peak Arrestance
  • 89% Average Arrestance
  • .12" Initial Resistance at 1200 CFM
  • 85 grams Dust Holding Capacity at .5" w.g.
  • 125 grams Dust Holding Capacity at 1" w.g.

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